Synthetic petrol: How bikes could become carbon-neutral without switching to battery power at all
As governments propose firm dates for the end of petrol and diesel powered vehicles you might be forgiven for thinking we’re living in the end days of the internal combustion engine. But the technology that’s literally driven the transport revolution for more than a century isn’t ready to give up just yet and could be thrown a lifeline by the development of synthetic fuels that are nearly as green as going electric.
Synthetic petrol, diesel and aviation fuels are all the subject of heavyweight pilot projects and are gaining interest fast as they eliminate the CO2 emissions from transport without the need for end-users to switch to new tech. Aviation in particular is backing the idea but motorsport is getting in on the action, with the World Rally Championship due to use 100% sustainable fuel as soon as next year.
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While biofuels already offset their emissions to an extent, synthetic fuel takes a more direct approach by stripping CO2 from the air and combining it with hydrogen to create a petrol replacement.
By using wind, solar or hydro-electric to generate the electricity for the electrolysis, the process is sustainable, and while engines using the fuel still emit carbon, the same amount is reabsorbed in the fuel-making process.
The idea of using electricity to create synthetic petrol and then to burn that fuel in combustion engines might seem wasteful but the benefits are also significant, reusing existing infrastructures and giving new life to billions of combustion engines rather than reducing them to scrap. With similar power density to normal petrol, synthetic fuels also mean you don’t need to lug vast batteries around.
At the moment, there are several synthetic fuel projects underway. Porsche – part of the VW Group and hence a sister to Ducati – have invested in Siemens Energy’s Haru Oni pilot project, a prototype plant in Chile that uses wind power to make synthetic petrol. It’s due to make 130,000 litres next year, 55 million in 2024 and 550 million litres in 2026.
BMW, meanwhile, have invested in US firm Prometheus Fuels, which uses a different process but again creates petrol from air, water and electricity.
While many governments seem keen on switching from combustion tech to all-electric vehicles, it’s looking likely that a better approach is to adopt multiple technologies to reach carbon neutrality, applying them where they fit best. And perhaps most importantly of all, synthetic fuel should mean that more than 100 years' worth of bikes have a future.
Synthetic fuel technology explained:
- Methanol-to-gasoline The methanol forms the basis of synthetic petrol, created at the Haru Oni plant using an 'MTG' (methanol to gasoline) technology provided by Exxon Mobil.
- Methanol synthesis Once the factory has extracted CO2 from the air and hydrogen from water, the two can be combined into a synthetic methanol fuel.
- Direct Air Capture unit CO2 is removed from the air using 'direct air capture' technology, which involves chemical filters and large fans to draw the ambient air through the system.
- Tank farm The resulting fuel is intended to be a direct replacement for fossil-derived petrol, eliminating the need for new engines and infrastructures. Estimates range from as little as £1 per litre to more than £3 per litre by 2030, but that may be worth it as a lifeline for existing engines and an alternative in applications where battery power is unsuitable.